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汽车城破产背后的原因

2013-12-07 18:37  已被阅读

摘要:1. How did Detroits financial situation get so dire, and does it hold lessons for other cities? 1. 底特律的财政状况怎么会变得这么差,对其他城市有什么经验教训? Most experts point to a number of reasons for Detr...

1. How did Detroit’s financial situation get so dire, and does it hold lessons for other cities?

1. 底特律的财政状况怎么会变得这么差,对其他城市有什么经验教训?

Most experts point to a number of reasons for Detroit’s woes: corruption, financial mismanagement, an automotive industry that shed jobs rapidly from the early 1980s to now. All this was exacerbated by population loss. Detroit has steadily lost population since the 1950s, going from a peak of 1.9 million residents to fewer than 700,000 today.

很多专家指出了底特律困境的许多原因:腐败、经济管理不善,而且从20世纪80年代初到现在,汽车行业一直在迅速裁员。人口损失又把情况加重了。底特律从20世纪50年代起人口数量稳步下滑,居民数从190万的最高点到现在不到700000人。

2. What is the state of the city’s bankruptcy?

2. 底特律的破产情况到了什么程度?

Even though emergency manager Kevyn Orr announced in July he planned to have Detroit declare Chapter 9 bankruptcy, the city still needs federal court approval to do so. The process has not been a smooth one, as many vested interests involved in the potential restructuring - namely the city’s public sector unions and creditors - have pushed back significantly. Bondholders and other creditors are fighting the prospect of receiving pennies on the dollar, and unions say a bankruptcy would violate the state constitution, which protects retiree benefits.

即使紧急状态管理人奥尔在7月时曾经说他准备提交破产保护申请,但底特律仍然要等联邦法院的批准。过程并不顺利,因为许多既得利益者参与了重组——即城市公共部门的工会和债权人——他们大力主张延后处理。债券持有人和其他债权人反对廉价处理资产,而且工会说破产会违反保护退休福利的宪法。

3. How is Detroit shoring up its finances in the meantime?

3. 底特律现在是如何巩固其财政的?

Earlier this month the city announced it would replace health-care benefits for retirees under age 65 with a $125 monthly stipend; those 65 and older would transition to Medicare, with the city paying all or most of the premiums.

底特律在本月早些时候宣布,将把65岁以下退休人员的医疗福利改成每月125美元的津贴;而65岁以上的老年人将转成医疗保险,底特律会支付全部或大部分的保费。

Mr. Orr says the changes will trim the city’s annual cost of retiree health care by more than two-thirds, from $170 million to $50 million or less.

奥尔先生说这个改变将会让每年对退休人员医疗保健的开支减少超过三分之二,从1.7亿美元将到5000万或更少的数额。

Orr recently hired Christie’s Appraisals, the famed New York City auction house, to appraise the 60,000-piece collection, which may be worth billions of dollars.While Orr has the right to sell the collection, it is more likely he will use it as collateral to raise money for a loan. DIA officials say such leveraging would put the art at risk; if the city defaults on such a loan, the fine-art collateral could be seized and sold. Another solution: Rent out parts of the collection to other museums.

奥尔最近聘请了著名的纽约拍卖行来估价博物馆中的60000件藏品,价值可能达到数十亿美元。虽然奥尔有权出售藏品,但他更有可能将藏品作为贷款抵押品筹集资金。DIA官员说这样举债会对艺术品产生风险,如果底特律违约,这些艺术藏品会被没收和出售。另一个解决方案是:把部分藏品给其他博物馆收藏。

4. What is the status of Detroit’s auto industry now?

4. 底特律现在的汽车产业怎么样?

Detroit’s big three automakers - General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler - are rebounding, making it one of the city’s few success stories in recent years. All three reported strong gains in global sales for the first half of 2013. One factor boosting revenue: China. All three car companies have opened factories or established supply chains there. GM leads competitors in sales; it enjoyed a nearly 11 percent jump in Chinese sales for the first half of the year, a record for the company and a figure that nearly matched its car sales in North America.

底特律三大汽车制造商——通用汽车、福特和克莱斯勒——正在恢复元气中,这是近年来这个城市为数不多的功绩之一。这三家公司都报告了2013年上半年全球销售的强劲上涨。收入增加一个因素来自中国。这三家汽车公司都在那里开了工厂或建了供应链。通用汽车在销售方面领先竞争对手,它上半年在中国的销量增长近11%,破了公司的记录,并几乎可以与北美的汽车销量媲美。

Detroit is also benefiting from Chinese investment. Chinese companies are pouring $1 billion into Michigan, and 95 percent of it is automotive-related, according to the state.

底特律也得益于中国投资。底特律表示,中国企业向密歇根投入了10亿美元,其中95%与汽车行业相关。

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